Beryllium is a divalent element which only occurs naturally in combination with other elements in minerals. It is primarily used as a hardening agent in alloys, notably beryllium copper. In structural applications, high flexural rigidity, thermal stability, thermal conductivity and low density make beryllium a quality aerospace material for high-speed aircraft, missiles, space vehicles and communication satellites. Because of its low density and atomic mass, beryllium is relatively transparent to X-rays and other forms of ionizing radiation; therefore, it is the most common window material for X-ray equipment and in particle physics experiments. The high thermal conductivity of beryllium and beryllium oxide have led to their use in heat transport and heat sinking applications.
Chemical Properties.
Appearance Silvery solid or grey foil
Atomic Number 4
Atomic Weight 9.01218 g/mol
Block S
Boiling Point 2469 °C
CAS Number 7440-41-7
Class 8
Crystal Structure Hexagonal
Density 1.85 g/cm3
EINECS Number 231-150-7
Electron Configuration 1s2 2s2
Group 2
Ionization Energy 899.5 kJ/mol
Main Hazards Beryllium dust causes conjuctival inflammation of the eyes and dermatitis.
Melting Point 1287 °C
Oxidation State 2,1
PG 2
Period 2
RTECS Number DS1750000
Solubility Insoluble
Symbol Be
Synonyms Glucinium

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Lithium is a metal that belongs to the alkali metal group of chemical elements. Under standard conditions it is the lightest metal and the least dense solid element. Lithium and its compounds have several industrial applications, including heat-resistant glass and ceramics, high strength-to-weight alloys used in aircraft, lithium batteries and lithium-ion batteries. Lithium niobate is used extensively in telecommunication products such as mobile phones and optical modulators, for such components as resonant crystals. Lithium is also used in the pharmaceutical and fine-chemical industry in the manufacture of organolithium reagents, which are used both as strong bases and as reagents for the formation of carbon-carbon bonds. Organolithium compounds are also used in polymer synthesis as catalysts/initiators in anionic polymerization of unfunctionalized olefins. Lithium compounds continue to be the gold standard for the treatment of bipolar disorder and are helpful for related diagnoses, such as schizoaffective disorder and cyclic major depression.
Chemical Properties.
Appearance Silver-White Solid
Atomic Number 3
Atomic Weight 6.941 g/mol
Block s
Boiling Point 1342 °C
CAS Number 7439-93-2
Class 4.3
Crystal Structure Body-Centered Cubic
Density 0.534 g/cm3
EINECS Number 231-102-5
Electron Configuration 1s2 2s1
Group 1
Ionization Energy 520.2 kJ/mol
Melting Point 180.54 °C
NFPA 704 H-3,F-4,R-2,C-NA
Oxidation State +1,-1
PG 1
Period 2
RTECS Number OJ5540000
Symbol Li

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