Carbon is nonmetallic and tetravalent-making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. The major economic use of carbon other than food and wood is in the form of hydrocarbons, most notably the fossil fuel methane gas and crude oil (petroleum). Crude oil is used by the petrochemical industry to produce, amongst others, gasoline and kerosene, through a distillation process, in refineries. Cellulose is a natural, carbon-containing polymer produced by plants in the form of cotton, linen, and hemp. Cellulose is mainly used for maintaining structure in plants. Commercially valuable carbon polymers of animal origin include wool, cashmere and silk. Plastics are made from synthetic carbon polymers, often with oxygen and nitrogen atoms included at regular intervals in the main polymer chain. The raw materials for many of these synthetic substances come from crude oil. It can form alloys with iron, of which the most common is carbon steel. Graphite is combined with clays to form the ‘lead’ used in pencils used for writing and drawing. It is also used as a lubricant and a pigment, as a molding material in glass manufacture, in electrodes for dry batteries and in electroplating and electroforming, in brushes for electric motors and as a neutron moderator in nuclear reactors. Gem quality diamond is used in jewelry, and Industrial diamonds are used in drilling, cutting and polishing tools for machining metals and stone. Carbon black is used as the black pigment in printing ink, artist’s oil paint and water colours, carbon paper, automotive finishes, India ink and laser printer toner. It is also used as a filler in rubber products such as tyres and in plastic compounds. Carbon acts as a macronutrient for the body, and is thus greatly required.
Chemical Properties.
Appearance Grey solid
Atomic Number 6
Atomic Weight 12.0107 g/mol
Block p
CAS Number 7440-44-0
Class NA
Density 1.8-2.1g/cm3
EINECS Number 231-153-3
Electron Configuration 1s22s22p2
Group 14
Ionization Energy 1086.5 kJ/mol
NFPA 704 H-1,F-1,R-0,C-NA
Oxidation State 4,3,2,1,0,-1,-2,-3,-4
Period 2
Symbol C
Synonyms Black Pearls;Charcoal Black;Graphite Nautural;Purified Charcoal;Activated Carbon;Black Diamond

Carbon producers/suppliers –



Boron is a metalloid. Because boron is not produced by stellar nucleosynthesis, it is a low-abundance element in both the solar system and the Earth’s crust. The major industrial scale uses of boron compounds are in sodium perborate bleaches, and the borax component of fiberglass insulation. Boron polymers and ceramics play specialized roles as high-strength lightweight structural and refractory materials. Boron compounds are used in silica-based glasses and ceramics to give them resistance to thermal shock. Boron-containing reagents are used for the synthesis of organic compounds, as intermediate in the synthesis of fine chemicals. A few boron-containing organic pharmaceuticals are used, or are in study. Boric acid is used as an insecticide, notably against ants, fleas, and cockroaches. Boron is a useful dopant for such semiconductors as silicon, germanium, and silicon carbide.
Chemical Properties.
Appearance Black-Brown Solid
Atomic Number 5
Atomic Weight 10.811 g/mol
Block p
Boiling Point 3927 °C
CAS Number 7440-42-8
Class 4.1
Density 2.08 g/cm3
EINECS Number 231-151-2
Electron Configuration 1s2 2s2 2p1
Group 13
Ionization Energy 800.6 kJ/mol
Melting Point 2076 °C
NFPA 704 H-1,F-1,R-0,C-NA
Oxidation State 3,2,1
PG 3
Period 2
RTECS Number ED7350000
Symbol B

Boron producers/suppliers –