Chemical properties – Phosphorus symbol, electronic configuration, density



Phosphorus is a multivalent nonmetal of the nitrogen group. It is a component of DNA, RNA, ATP, and also the phospholipids that form all cell membranes. It is thus an essential element for all living cells, and organisms tend to accumulate and concentrate it. Today, the most important commercial use of phosphorus-based chemicals is the production of fertilizers, to replace the phosphorus that plants remove from the soil. It is widely used to make organophosphorus compounds. It is also an important component in steel production, in the making of phosphor bronze, and in many other related products. Phosphates are utilized in the making of special glasses that are used for sodium lamps.

Chemical Properties.

Appearance White or red powder
Atomic Number 15
Atomic Weight 30.973 g/mol
Block p
Boiling Point 280.5 °C(white)
CAS Number 7723-14-0
Class 4.1
Density 1.823 g/cm3(white), 2.34g/cm3(red)
EINECS Number 231-768-7
Electron Configuration 1s2 2s2 2p3s2 3p3
Group 15
HS Code 28047000
Ionization Energy 1011.8 KJ/mol
Melting Point 44.2 °C(white)
Oxidation State 5,4,3,2,1,-1,-2,-3
PG 3
Period 3
RTECS Number TH3495000
Symbol P

phosphorous producers/ suppliers –


Chemical properties – silicon symbol, electronic configuration, density





Silicon is the most common metalloid. It has many industrial uses. It is the principal component of most semiconductor devices, most importantly integrated circuits or microchips. It is widely used in semiconductors because it remains a semiconductor at higher temperatures than the semiconductor germanium and because its native oxide is easily grown in a furnace and forms a good semiconductor/dielectric interface. In the form of silica and silicates, silicon forms useful glasses, cements, and ceramics. It is also a constituent of silicones, a class-name for various synthetic plastic substances made of silicon, oxygen, carbon and hydrogen, often confused with silicon itself. Silicon is an essential element in biology, although only tiny traces of it appear to be required by animals. It is much more important to the metabolism of plants, particularly many grasses, and silicic acid forms the basis of the striking array of protective shells of the microscopic diatoms.

Chemical Properties.

Appearance Grey lustrous solid or grey powder
Atomic Number 14
Atomic Weight 28.0855 g/mol
Block p
Boiling Point 3265 °C
CAS Number 7440-21-3
Class 4.1
Crystal Structure Diamond cubic
Density 2.33 g/cm3
EINECS Number 231-130-8
Electron Configuration 1s2 2s2 2p63s3p2
Group 14
Ionization Energy 786.5 kJ/mol
Melting Point 1414 °C
NFPA 704 H-2,F-2,R-1,C-NA
Oxidation State 4,3,2 ,1,-1,-2,-3,-4
PG 3
Period 3
RTECS Number VW0400000
Symbol Si


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Chemical properties – aluminium symbol, electronic configuration, density



Aluminium is the most abundant metal in the Earth’s crust, and the third most abundant element, after oxygen and silicon. It is the most widely used non-ferrous metal. Aluminium is remarkable for the metal’s low density and for its ability to resist corrosion due to the phenomenon of passivation. Structural components made from aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and are important in other areas of transportation and structural materials. The most useful compounds of aluminium, at least on a weight basis, are the oxides and sulfates.

Chemical Properties.

Appearance Silvery gray metallic solid
Atomic Number 13
Atomic Weight 26.9815 g/mol
Block p
Boiling Point 2519 °C
CAS Number 7429-90-5
Class 8
Crystal Structure Face-centered cubic
Density 2.7 g/cm3
EINECS Number 231-072-3
Group 13
HS Code 76032000
Ionization Energy 577.5 kJ/mol
Melting Point 660.32 °C
Oxidation State 3,2,1
PG 3
Period 3
RTECS Number BD0330000
Symbol Al
Synonyms Aluminum

Aluminium producers/suppliers –


Research news of the week

Scientists isolate elusive nitridyl radical

Chemists have isolated an elusive ‘nitridyl radical.’ The reactive nitrogen particle, captured between two rhodium atoms, may well play an important role in new processes for converting molecular nitrogen into useful compounds such as fertilizers… Read more 

New method to store hydrogen

Scientists are developing a novel way to store hydrogen to smooth out the long-awaited transition away from fossil fuels. Storing hydrogen in solids is a recent development and a promising step toward building a hydrogen economy… Read more 

New research improves control of synthetic catalysts

Inspired by how enzymes work in nature’s biological processes, researchers have demonstrated a way to improve control of synthetic catalysts. Catalysts accelerate chemical reactions so that they go faster and use less energy… Read more 

Red wine helps prevent dental cavities

A new study has claimed that red wine could help prevent dental cavities. The finding could lead to the development of natural products that ward off dental diseases with fewer side effects… Read more

Fungi can clean polluted soil, finds new study

Fungi can be harnessed to clean polluted soil which cannot be cleaned using traditional composting. Soil that has been polluted by organic pollutants such as oils can be treated by composting… Read more


Just one night of heavy drinking is also harmful to health

According to a latest study, just one night of heavy drinking can cause certain bacteria to leak from the gut – causing an increased level of toxins to build-up in the blood… Read more


Chemical properties – Magnesium symbol, electronic configuration, density



Magnesium is an alkaline earth metal and the seventh most abundant element in the Earth’s crust. It is the 11th most abundant element by mass in the human body; its ions are essential to all living cells, where they play a major role in manipulating important biological polyphosphate compounds like ATP, DNA, and RNA. It is also the metallic ion at the center of chlorophyll, and is thus a common additive to fertilizers. Magnesium compounds are used medicinally as common laxatives, antacids, and in a number of situations where stabilization of abnormal nerve excitation and blood vessel spasm is required. The main applications of magnesium are, component of aluminium alloys, in die-casting, to remove sulfur in the production of iron and steel, the production of titanium in the Kroll process. Magnesium, in its purest form, can be compared with aluminium, and is strong and light, so it is used in several high volume part manufacturing applications, including automotive and truck components. The second application field of magnesium is electronic devices. Because of low weight, good mechanical and electrical properties, magnesium is widely used for manufacturing of mobile phones, laptop computers, cameras, and other electronic components. Magnesium’s high burning temperature makes it a useful tool for starting emergency fires during outdoor recreation. Other uses include flash photography, flares, pyrotechnics and fireworks sparklers. It is also used in the form of turnings or ribbons, to prepare Grignard reagents, which are useful in organic synthesis.

Chemical Properties.

Appearance Shiny Grey Solid
Atomic Number 12
Atomic Weight 24.305 g/mol
Block s
Boiling Point 1091 °C
CAS Number 7439-95-4
Class 4.1
Crystal Structure Hexagonal
Density 1.74 g/cm3
EINECS Number 231-104-6
Electron Configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2
Group 2
HS Code 81049000
Ionization Energy 737.7 kJ/mol
Melting Point 650 °C
NFPA 704 H-0,F-1,R-1,C-NA
Oxidation State 2,1
PG 3
Period 3
RTECS Number OM3756000
Symbol Mg


Magnesium producers/suppliers –


Chemistry research news

Laughter increases memory, finds new study

A new study has revealed that humor and laughter can help lessen the damage that stress hormone cortisol has on memory and learning ability in the elderly. Cortisol decreases memory hippocampal neurons, lowers the blood pressure, and increases blood flow and mood state… Read more  


Yawning cools the brain, says new study

Researchers from the University of Vienna, Austria, and the Nova Southeastern University and SUNY College at Oneonta, USA highlight a link with thermoregulation, and in particular, brain cooling… Read more


Newly developed regenerating material grows back after damage

Researchers at University of Illinois have developed materials that not only heal, but regenerate. Until now, self-repairing materials could only bond tiny microscopic cracks. The new regenerating materials fill in large cracks and holes by regrowing material… Read more 

Crop nutrients will fall with increase in carbon dioxide, say researchers

Researchers say that as carbon dioxide levels rise this century, some grains and legumes will become significantly less nutritious than they are today. The researchers looked at multiple varieties crops grown in fields with atmospheric carbon dioxide levels like those expected in the middle of this century… Read more

Chemical properties – Sodium symbol, electronic configuration, density



Sodium is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal and is a member of the alkali metals within group 1.It is an essential element for all animal life and for some plant species. In animals, sodium ions are used in opposition to potassium ions, to allow the organism to build up an electrostatic charge on cell membranes, and thus allow transmission of nerve impulses when the charge is allowed to dissipate by a moving wave of voltage change.

Chemical Properties.

Appearance Solid
Atomic Number 11
Block S
Boiling Point 883 °C
CAS Number 7440-23-5
Density 0.97 g/cm3
EINECS Number 231-132-9
Electron Configuration [Ne] 3s1
Group 1
Ionization Energy 495.8 kJ/mol
Melting Point 98 °C
Molar Mass 22.989 g/mol
Oxidation State +1,0,-1
Period 3
Symbol Na

Sodium producers/suppliers –