Dextrose is a simple sugar and an important carbohydrate in biology. Cells use it as the primary source of energy and a metabolic intermediate. It is one of the main products of photosynthesis and starts cellular respiration. It is a common medical analyte measured in blood samples. In industry, dextrose is used as a precursor to make vitamin C.
Sorbitol is a sugar alcohol that the human body metabolizes slowly. It can be obtained by reduction of glucose, changing the aldehyde group to a hydroxyl group. It is found in apples, pears, peaches, and prunes. It is synthesized by sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and converted to fructose by succinate dehydrogenase and sorbitol dehydrogenase.
Borax is an important boron compound, a mineral, and a salt of boric acid. It has a wide variety of uses. It is a component of many detergents, cosmetics, and enamel glazes. It is also used to make buffer solutions in biochemistry, as a fire retardant, as an anti-fungal compound for fiberglass, as an insecticide, as a flux in metallurgy, a texturing agent in cooking, and as a precursor for other boron compounds.
Carboxymethyl cellulose or cellulose gum is a cellulose derivative with carboxymethyl groups (-CH2-COOH) bound to some of the hydroxyl groups of the glucopyranose monomers that make up the cellulose backbone. It is often used as its sodium salt, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose. It is used in food science as a viscosity modifier or thickener, and to stabilize emulsions in various products