Chemicals that keep drinking water flowing may also cause fouling

Chemicals that keep drinking water flowing may also cause fouling

Many cities drinking water systems add softening agents to keep plumbing free of pipe-clogging mineral build-up. According to new research from the University of Illinois, these additives may amplify the risk of pathogen release into drinking water by weakening the grip that bacteria – like those responsible for Legionnaires’ disease – have on pipe interiors. Biofilms, which are similar to the films that grow on the glass of fish tanks, are present in almost all plumbing systems and anchor themselves to mineral scale build-ups in pipes. They are teeming with harmless microbial life and incidents of waterborne illness are rare. Read More

Many foods produced on an industrial scale include raw ingredients mixed together in enormous stainless-steel machines that can be difficult to clean. With repeated use, equipment surfaces get minute scratches and grooves, providing bacteria and biofilms the perfect place to hide. While surface scratches may appear small to the naked eye, they are like a canyon to bacteria, which are only a few micrometers in size. Surface-trapped food residue and bacteria then increase the risk of contamination from microorganisms such as SalmonellaListeriaandE. coliRead More


For more than a decade in the middle of the 20th century, chemists debated exactly what carbocations — molecules with a positively charged carbon atom — looked like. What is known as the “classical view,” which was taught at the beginning of that century, stated that the carbon in these molecules held the charge; the “non-classical view” held that the charge could also be shared by other nearby atoms. Both theory and experiment eventually proved that non-classical carbocations existed, and the debate faded away. Even if these structures exist, most chemists believed, they had no practical relevance. Read More

Reliance Industries Ltd (RIL) said it has agreed to sell its entire 70 percent stake Gujarat’s Cambay Basin block to Dilip Shanghvi-promoted Sun Petrochemicals Pvt Ltd (Sun Oil and Natural Gas) for an undisclosed amount, reported Mint. Reliance has a 70 percent participating interest in the oil and gas block CB-ONN-2003/1 (also called CB-10) while BP India holds the balance 30 percent. “RIL signed a sale and purchase agreement (SPA) with Sun Petro to farm out its 70 percent interest in the block. The application for assignment has been submitted to the Government of India for approval,” RIL said in a presentation to analysts. Read More