How coffee keeps us awake?


COFFEE

 

 

Coffee plant originated in Africa and Madagascar. Coffee has become a universal and almost indispensable beverage in the modern dietary. Coffee provides a energy burst as it contains caffeine. Caffeine helps rev up metabolism, increases endurance, improves focus and lessens pain.

History of coffee

The coffee plant, which was discovered in Ethiopia in the 11th Century, has a white blossom that smells like jasmine and a red, cherry-like fruit. Back then, the leaves of the so-called ‘magical fruit’ were boiled in water and the resulting concoction was thought to have medicinal properties. As the fame of the coffee plant spread to other lands, its centuries-long voyage was about to begin.
Coffee spread quickly through the Arabian Peninsula. In the mid 14th century, coffee cultivation reached Yemen and for 300 years, it was drunk following the recipe first used in Ethiopia. Yemen’s climate and fertile soil offered the ideal conditions for cultivating rich coffee harvests.
Istanbul was introduced to coffee in 1555 during the reign of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent by Özdemir Pasha, the Ottoman Governor of Yemen, who had grown to love the drink while stationed in that country. © turkishcoffeeworld

Composition of coffee

Coffee contains about 1500 chemicals. The different groups of chemicals present in coffee are –
150 Aliphatic compounds, 56 Carbonyl compounds, 9 Sulfur containing compounds, 20 Alicyclic compounds, 10 Ketones, 60 Aromatic benzenoid compounds, 16 Phenols, 300 Heterocyclic compounds, 74 Furans, 10 Hydrofurans, 37 Pyrroles, 9 Pyridines, 2 Quinolines, 70 Pyrazines, 10 Quinoxalines, 3 Indoles, 23 Thiophens, 3 Thiophenones, 28 Thiazoles, 28 Oxazole.
Coffee contains huge numbers of compounds. About 800 – 1000 aroma compounds caffeine, carbohydrates, chlorogenic acids, trigonelline, lipids, melanoidins, volatile compounds.

How coffee keeps us awake?

It’s a normal practice to drink coffee to stay awake. Here is how it works.
Caffeine present in coffee works by changing the chemistry of the brain. It blocks the action of a natural brain chemical, adenosine, that is associated with sleep. The binding of adenosine with the brain causes drowsiness by slowing down nerve cell activity. In the brain, adenosine binding also causes blood vessels to dilate (presumably to let more oxygen in during sleep). Adenosine are produced by our daily activity.
Caffeine and adenosine look similar. Caffeine, therefore, binds to the adenosine receptors. However, it doesn’t slow down the cell’s activity as adenosine would. The cells cannot sense adenosine anymore because caffeine is taking up all the receptors adenosine binds to. So instead of slowing down because of the adenosine level, the cells speed up. Caffeine also causes the brain’s blood vessels to constrict, because it blocks adenosine’s ability to open them up. This effect is why some headache medicines, like Anacin, contain caffeine – if you have a vascular headache, the caffeine will close down the blood vessels and relieve it.
With caffeine blocking the adenosine, you have increased neuron firing in the brain. The pituitary gland sees all of the activity and thinks some sort of emergency must be occurring, so it releases hormones that tell the adrenal glands to produce adrenaline (epinephrine). Adrenaline is, of course, the ‘fight or flight’ hormone and it has a number of effects on your body.

 

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Chemical properties – Calcium symbol, electronic configuration, density


Description:

Calcium is a alkaline earth metal, and is the fifth most abundant element by mass in the Earth’s crust. It is essential for living organisms, particularly in cell physiology, where movement of the calcium ion Ca2+ into and out of the cytoplasm functions as a signal for many cellular processes. As a major material used in mineralization of bones and shells, calcium is the most abundant metal by mass in many animals. It is uesd as a reducing agent in the extraction of other metals, such as uranium, zirconium, and thorium, as a deoxidizer, desulfurizer, or decarbonizer for various ferrous and nonferrous alloys, and as an alloying agent used in the production of aluminium, beryllium, copper, lead, and magnesium alloys. It is also used in the making of cements and mortars to be used in construction and in the making of cheese, where calcium ions influence the activity of rennin in bringing about the coagulation of milk.

Chemical Properties.

Appearance Silvery White Solid
Atomic Number 20
Atomic Weight 40.078 g/mol
Block s
Boiling Point 1484 °C
CAS Number 7440-70-2
Class 4.3
Crystal Structure Face-centered cubic
Density 1.55 g/cm3
EINECS Number 231-179-5
Electron Configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2
Group 2
Ionization Energy 589.8 KJ/mol
Melting Point 842 °C
NFPA 704 H-3,F-3,R-2,C-NA
Oxidation State +2,+1
PG 2
Period 4
Symbol Ca

Calcium producers/suppliers – http://www.worldofchemicals.com/chemicals/manufacturers/fl/calcium.html

Chemical properties – Potassium symbol, electronic configuration, density


Description:

Potassium is an alkali metal. Potassium ions are an essential component of plant nutrition and are found in most soil types. They are used as a fertilizer in agriculture, horticulture, and hydroponic culture in the form of chloride, sulfate, or nitrate. The potassium cation is a nutrient necessary for human life and health. Potassium chloride is used as a substitute for table salt by those seeking to reduce sodium intake so as to control hypertension. Vapor of pure potassium is used in several types of magnetometers. It can also be used in reactive distillation.

Chemical Properties.

Appearance Silvery gray metal
Atomic Number 19
Atomic Weight 39.0983 g/mol
Block s
Boiling Point 759 °C
CAS Number 7440-09-7
Class 4.3
Crystal Structure Body-centered cubic
Density 0.862 g/cm3
EINECS Number 231-119-8
Electron Configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1
Group 1
Ionization Energy 418.8 KJ/mol
Melting Point 63.38 °C
NFPA 704 H-3,F-3,R-2,C-W
Oxidation State 1
PG 1
Period 4
RTECS Number TS8050000
Symbol K

Potassium producers/suppliers – http://www.worldofchemicals.com/chemicals/manufacturers/fl/potassium.html

 

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On this day in #chemistry June 1st A ver


On this day in #chemistry

June 1st

A very sad day to people of UK and to entire world

The Nypro chemical plant in Flixborough, Humberside was destroyed by a massive explosion on this day in 1974
A temporary pipe containing cyclohexane caught fire and burst. It left 28 people dead, 36 injured and around 1800 nearby buildings damaged. Consequently, UK government regulations in hazardous industrial processes were significantly tightened.
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