Chemical properties – argon symbol, electronic configuration, density




Argon is the third most common gas in the Earth’s atmosphere. It is mostly used as an inert shielding gas in welding and other high-temperature industrial processes where ordinarily non-reactive substances become reactive. It also has uses in incandescent and fluorescent lighting, and other types of gas discharge tubes. It makes a distinctive blue-green gas laser.

Chemical Properties.

Appearance Colorless gas
Atomic Number 18
Atomic Weight 39.948 g/mol
Block p
Boiling Point −185.85 °C
CAS Number 7440-37-1
Class 2.2
Crystal Structure Face-centered cubic
Density 1.784 g/l
EINECS Number 231-147-0
Electron Configuration 1s2 2s2 2p3s2 3p6
Group 18
Ionization Energy 1520.6 KJ/mol
Melting Point −189.35 °C
Period 3
RTECS Number CF2300000
Symbol Ar

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Chemical properties – Chlorine symbol, electronic configuration, density



Chlorine is a halogen, found in the periodic table in group 17. As the chloride ion, which is part of common salt and other compounds, it is abundant in nature and necessary to most forms of life, including humans. In its elemental form under standard conditions, chlorine is a powerful oxidant and is used in bleaching and disinfectants, as well as an essential reagent in the chemical industry. As a common disinfectant, chlorine compounds are used in swimming pools to keep them clean and sanitary. It is also used in making plastics, solvents for dry cleaning and metal degreasing, textiles, agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals, insecticides, dyestuffs, household cleaning products, etc.

Chemical Properties.

Appearance Pale Yellow-Green Gas
Atomic Number 17
Atomic Weight 35.453 g/mol
Block p
Boiling Point -34.04 °C
CAS Number 7782-50-5
Class 2.3
Crystal Structure Orthorhombic
Density 3.2 g/l
EINECS Number 231-959-5
Electron Configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5
Group 17
Ionization Energy 1251.2 KJ/mol
Melting Point -101.5 °C
NFPA 704 H-4,F-0,R-0,C-OXY
Oxidation State 7,6,5,4,3,2,1,-1
Period 3
RTECS Number FO2100000
Symbol Cl
Synonyms Chlorine Gas


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Chemical properties – Sulfur symbol, electronic configuration, density



Sulfur is an abundant, multivalent non-metal. It is an essential element for all life, and is widely used in biochemical processes. In metabolic reactions, sulfur compounds serve as both fuels and respiratory materials for simple organisms. It is an important part of many enzymes and also in antioxidant molecules like glutathione and thioredoxin. Organically bonded sulfur is a component of all proteins, as the amino acids cysteine and methionine. Disulfide bonds are largely responsible for the mechanical strength and insolubility of the protein keratin, found in outer skin, hair, and feathers, and the element contributes to their pungent odor when burned. The element’s commercial uses are primarily in fertilizers, because of the relatively high requirement of plants for it, and in the manufacture of sulfuric acid, a primary industrial chemical. Other well-known uses for the element are in matches, insecticides and fungicides.

Chemical Properties.

Appearance Lemon Yellow Solid
Atomic Number 16
Atomic Weight 32.065 g/mol
Block p
Boiling Point 444.6 °C
CAS Number 7704-34-9
Class 4.1
Crystal Structure Orthorhombic
Density 2.07 g/cm3
EINECS Number 231-722-6
Electron Configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s3p4
Group 16
IUPAC Name Sulfur
InChI 1/S
Ionization Energy 999.6 KJ/mol
Melting Point 115.21 °C
Molar Mass 32.06 g/mol
Molecular Formula S
Oxidation State 6,5,4,3,2,1,-1,-2
PG 3
Period 3
Symbol S

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Chemical properties – Phosphorus symbol, electronic configuration, density



Phosphorus is a multivalent nonmetal of the nitrogen group. It is a component of DNA, RNA, ATP, and also the phospholipids that form all cell membranes. It is thus an essential element for all living cells, and organisms tend to accumulate and concentrate it. Today, the most important commercial use of phosphorus-based chemicals is the production of fertilizers, to replace the phosphorus that plants remove from the soil. It is widely used to make organophosphorus compounds. It is also an important component in steel production, in the making of phosphor bronze, and in many other related products. Phosphates are utilized in the making of special glasses that are used for sodium lamps.

Chemical Properties.

Appearance White or red powder
Atomic Number 15
Atomic Weight 30.973 g/mol
Block p
Boiling Point 280.5 °C(white)
CAS Number 7723-14-0
Class 4.1
Density 1.823 g/cm3(white), 2.34g/cm3(red)
EINECS Number 231-768-7
Electron Configuration 1s2 2s2 2p3s2 3p3
Group 15
HS Code 28047000
Ionization Energy 1011.8 KJ/mol
Melting Point 44.2 °C(white)
Oxidation State 5,4,3,2,1,-1,-2,-3
PG 3
Period 3
RTECS Number TH3495000
Symbol P

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Chemical properties – silicon symbol, electronic configuration, density





Silicon is the most common metalloid. It has many industrial uses. It is the principal component of most semiconductor devices, most importantly integrated circuits or microchips. It is widely used in semiconductors because it remains a semiconductor at higher temperatures than the semiconductor germanium and because its native oxide is easily grown in a furnace and forms a good semiconductor/dielectric interface. In the form of silica and silicates, silicon forms useful glasses, cements, and ceramics. It is also a constituent of silicones, a class-name for various synthetic plastic substances made of silicon, oxygen, carbon and hydrogen, often confused with silicon itself. Silicon is an essential element in biology, although only tiny traces of it appear to be required by animals. It is much more important to the metabolism of plants, particularly many grasses, and silicic acid forms the basis of the striking array of protective shells of the microscopic diatoms.

Chemical Properties.

Appearance Grey lustrous solid or grey powder
Atomic Number 14
Atomic Weight 28.0855 g/mol
Block p
Boiling Point 3265 °C
CAS Number 7440-21-3
Class 4.1
Crystal Structure Diamond cubic
Density 2.33 g/cm3
EINECS Number 231-130-8
Electron Configuration 1s2 2s2 2p63s3p2
Group 14
Ionization Energy 786.5 kJ/mol
Melting Point 1414 °C
NFPA 704 H-2,F-2,R-1,C-NA
Oxidation State 4,3,2 ,1,-1,-2,-3,-4
PG 3
Period 3
RTECS Number VW0400000
Symbol Si


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Chemical properties – aluminium symbol, electronic configuration, density



Aluminium is the most abundant metal in the Earth’s crust, and the third most abundant element, after oxygen and silicon. It is the most widely used non-ferrous metal. Aluminium is remarkable for the metal’s low density and for its ability to resist corrosion due to the phenomenon of passivation. Structural components made from aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and are important in other areas of transportation and structural materials. The most useful compounds of aluminium, at least on a weight basis, are the oxides and sulfates.

Chemical Properties.

Appearance Silvery gray metallic solid
Atomic Number 13
Atomic Weight 26.9815 g/mol
Block p
Boiling Point 2519 °C
CAS Number 7429-90-5
Class 8
Crystal Structure Face-centered cubic
Density 2.7 g/cm3
EINECS Number 231-072-3
Group 13
HS Code 76032000
Ionization Energy 577.5 kJ/mol
Melting Point 660.32 °C
Oxidation State 3,2,1
PG 3
Period 3
RTECS Number BD0330000
Symbol Al
Synonyms Aluminum

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