CHEMICAL PROPERTIES – BERYLLIUM SYMBOL, ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION, DENSITY


Beryllium

Description:

Beryllium is a divalent element which only occurs naturally in combination with other elements in minerals. It is primarily used as a hardening agent in alloys, notably beryllium copper. In structural applications, high flexural rigidity, thermal stability, thermal conductivity and low density make beryllium a quality aerospace material for high-speed aircraft, missiles, space vehicles and communication satellites. Because of its low density and atomic mass, beryllium is relatively transparent to X-rays and other forms of ionizing radiation; therefore, it is the most common window material for X-ray equipment and in particle physics experiments. The high thermal conductivity of beryllium and beryllium oxide have led to their use in heat transport and heat sinking applications.
Chemical Properties.
Appearance Silvery solid or grey foil
Atomic Number 4
Atomic Weight 9.01218 g/mol
Block S
Boiling Point 2469 °C
CAS Number 7440-41-7
Class 8
Crystal Structure Hexagonal
Density 1.85 g/cm3
EINECS Number 231-150-7
Electron Configuration 1s2 2s2
Group 2
Ionization Energy 899.5 kJ/mol
Main Hazards Beryllium dust causes conjuctival inflammation of the eyes and dermatitis.
Melting Point 1287 °C
Oxidation State 2,1
PG 2
Period 2
RTECS Number DS1750000
Solubility Insoluble
Symbol Be
Synonyms Glucinium

Beryllium manufacturers/suppliers – http://www.worldofchemicals.com/chemicals/manufacturers/fl/beryllium.html

 

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CHEMICAL PROPERTIES – LITHIUM SYMBOL, ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION, DENSITY


Lithium
Description:

Lithium is a metal that belongs to the alkali metal group of chemical elements. Under standard conditions it is the lightest metal and the least dense solid element. Lithium and its compounds have several industrial applications, including heat-resistant glass and ceramics, high strength-to-weight alloys used in aircraft, lithium batteries and lithium-ion batteries. Lithium niobate is used extensively in telecommunication products such as mobile phones and optical modulators, for such components as resonant crystals. Lithium is also used in the pharmaceutical and fine-chemical industry in the manufacture of organolithium reagents, which are used both as strong bases and as reagents for the formation of carbon-carbon bonds. Organolithium compounds are also used in polymer synthesis as catalysts/initiators in anionic polymerization of unfunctionalized olefins. Lithium compounds continue to be the gold standard for the treatment of bipolar disorder and are helpful for related diagnoses, such as schizoaffective disorder and cyclic major depression.
Chemical Properties.
Appearance Silver-White Solid
Atomic Number 3
Atomic Weight 6.941 g/mol
Block s
Boiling Point 1342 °C
CAS Number 7439-93-2
Class 4.3
Crystal Structure Body-Centered Cubic
Density 0.534 g/cm3
EINECS Number 231-102-5
Electron Configuration 1s2 2s1
Group 1
Ionization Energy 520.2 kJ/mol
Melting Point 180.54 °C
NFPA 704 H-3,F-4,R-2,C-NA
Oxidation State +1,-1
PG 1
Period 2
RTECS Number OJ5540000
Symbol Li

Lithium manufacturers/suppliers – http://www.worldofchemicals.com/chemicals/manufacturers/fl/lithium.html

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chemical properties – Helium symbol, electronic configuration, density


Helium
Description:

Helium is a monatomic gas that heads the noble gas group in the periodic table. Its boiling and melting points are the lowest among the elements and it exists only as a gas except in extreme conditions. It is the second most abundant element in the universe. It is used in cryogenics, particularly the cooling of superconducting magnets, with the main commercial application in MRI scanners. Helium’s other industrial uses as a pressurizing and purge gas, and a protective atmosphere for arc welding and processes such as growing crystals to make silicon wafers, account for half of its use. Economically minor uses, such as lifting gas in balloons and airships are popularly known. As with any gas with differing density from air, inhaling a small volume of helium temporarily changes the timbre and quality of the human voice. In scientific research, the behavior of two fluid phases of helium-4, helium I and helium II, is important to researchers studying quantum mechanics and to those looking at the effects that temperatures near absolute zero have on matter.
Chemical Properties.
Appearance Colorless Gas
Atomic Number 2
Atomic Weight 4.0026 g/mol
Block s
Boiling Point −268.9 °C
CAS Number 7440-59-7
Class 2.2
Crystal Structure Hexagonal Close-Packed
Density 0.1786 g/l
EINECS Number 231-168-5
Electron Configuration 1s2
Group 18
Ionization Energy 2372.3 kJ/mol
Melting Point −272.2 °C
PG NA
Period 1
RTECS Number MH6520000
Symbol He

Helium manufacturers/suppliers – http://www.worldofchemicals.com/chemicals/manufacturers/fl/helium.html

chemical properties – Hydrogen symbol, electronic configuration, density


Hydrogen

Description:

Hydrogen is the lightest and most abundant chemical element.The most common isotope of hydrogen is protium with a single proton and no neutrons. In 1671, Robert Boyle discovered and described the reaction between iron filings and dilute acids, which results in the production of hydrogen gas. In 1766, Henry Cavendish was the first to recognize hydrogen gas as a discrete substance, by identifying the gas from a metal-acid reaction as “phlogiston”, meaning “flammable air” and further finding in 1781 that the gas produces water when burned. He is usually given credit for its discovery as an element. In 1783, Antoine Lavoisier gave the element the name hydrogen when he and Laplace reproduced Cavendish’s finding that water is produced when hydrogen is burned. Large quantities of hydrogen are needed in the petroleum and chemical industries. The largest application of hydrogen is for the processing of fossil fuels, and in the production of ammonia. It is used as a hydrogenating agent, particularly in increasing the level of saturation of unsaturated fats and oils, and in the production of methanol. It is similarly the source of hydrogen in the manufacture of hydrochloric acid. It is also used as a reducing agent of metallic ores. It is commonly used in power stations, as a coolant in generators, due to its specific heat capacity being considerably higher than any other gas.

Chemical Properties.

Appearance Colorless Gas
Atomic Number 1
Atomic Weight 1.00794 g/mol
Block S
Boiling Point −252.87 °C
CAS Number 1333-74-0
Class 2.1
Crystal Structure Hexagonal
Density 0.899 g/cm3
EINECS Number 215-605-7
Electron Configuration 1s1
Group 1
Ionization Energy 1312 kJ/mol
Melting Point −259.14 °C
NFPA 704 H-0,F-4,R-0,C-NA
Oxidation State 1,-1
PG NA
Period 1
RTECS Number MW8900000
Solubility 0.00017 g/100 ml
Symbol H

 

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